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    Volume 28
    Issue 3
    December 2001
    Darren W. Dahl
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    Rajesh V. Manchanda
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    Jennifer J. Argo
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    , Volume 28, Issue 3, 1 December 2001, Pages 473–481, https://doi.org/10.1086/323734
    01 December 2001
    Article history
    01 September 1999
    Revision Received:
    01 March 2001

    Darren W. Dahl, Rajesh V. Manchanda, Jennifer J. Argo; Embarrassment in Consumer Purchase: The Roles of Social Presence and Purchase Familiarity, Journal of Consumer Research , Volume 28, Issue 3, 1 December 2001, Pages 473–481, https://doi.org/10.1086/323734

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    Two field studies investigate the importance of social presence (real and imagined) and familiarity with the purchase act in producing embarrassment in the context of an embarrassing product purchase. The results indicate that awareness of a social presence during purchase selection and commitment, whether real or imagined, is a motivating factor in creating embarrassment for the consumer. Further, our results show that the more familiar consumers are with an embarrassing product purchase, the less embarrassed they are likely to feel. Familiarity with an embarrassing product purchase is also shown to have implications for the effect of social presence. That is, familiarity with purchase acts as a moderator for the relationship of real social presence and embarrassment by reducing the influence of the social presence. In the context of an imagined social presence, purchase familiarity is shown to reduce the likelihood of imagining. These findings are integrated into a discussion of the theoretical implications and the potential avenues for future research in the area.


    AESA seeks to develop research leadership and promote scientific excellence and innovation to overcome some of Africa’s developmental challenges that include the shortage of researchers to deal with its disease burden.

    The African Union heads of state endorsed the establishment of AESA, whose goals are in line with the Science Technology and Innovation Strategy for Africa (STISA 2024) - the African Union’s blueprint for developing science- at their 24th Summit in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 30-31 January 2015.


    AESA supports initiatives in all areas of science, particularly health research, relevant to Africa. AESA does this by:

    Programmes falling under AESA include the Developing Excellence in Leadership, Training and Science (DELTAS) Africa initiative, the Good Financial Grant Practice (GFGP) and the Grand Challenges Africa initiative.

    Proposal Development Workshops

    AESA runs workshops to support postdoctoral scientists to write better proposals by developing their understanding of funders’ requirements, the proposal production process and how proposals are assessed.

    The first of the proposal development workshops was held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 20- to 22 July 2015. Thirty participants from 15 African countries were selected for sponsorship following a rigorous screening process. The course was delivered by a panel of facilitators drawn from AESA, the Medical Research Council in The Gambia, the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Wellcome Trust in the UK.

    Think tank functions

    AESA is leading the AAS’ work in using research to inform policies by:

    Email [email protected] to receive updates, access think tank services or to partner with AESA.


    The AAS and the NEPAD Agency created AESA with the support of the Wellcome Trust, the UK’s Department for International Development and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

    DELTAS Africa grantee Dixon Chibanda

    Developing Excellence in Leadership, Training and Science (DELTAS​) Africa Initiative

    The DELTAS Africa programme, a scheme initiated by the Mens Cotton TrimFit Dress Shirt Barneys New York Clearance Wiki Clearance Find Great Sale Cheap Free Shipping Latest Collections ZSzUZ
    in partnership with AESA and other partners,supports the African-led development of world class researchers and research leaders in Africa.
    Read more about the programme.

    Grand Challenges Africa

    Grand Challenges Africa is a scheme aimed at inspiring innovation to address and significantly impact major health problems in Africa. The initiative, which is a partnership between the AAS-AESA and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation will award seed and full grants based on the scope of the projects.
    Read more about the programme.

    Good Financial Grant Practice Programme The Good Financial Grant Practice (GFGP) is a programme under the AESA platform that will involve the development of a pan African standard.

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